_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Sciences sociales et humaines
Ataféï PEW/SS/,
Université de Lomé
FacilIté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines
Département d'Anglais
Les théories littéraires constituent des formes de préoccupations qui déterminent les perceptions politiques
ou idéologiques dans l'approche critique d'une oeuvre littéraire. Ces perceptions émanent de groupes d'intérêts
opérant dans un système de relations conflictuelles.
L'objectifde la présente étude est de mettre en relief certains des dangers qu'entraînent les luttes théoriques
et idéologiques et de proposer une relation inter- théorique capable de combattre la paranoïa.
MOls clés: Littérature, théories, conspiration, éthique, politique.
Literary theories are new fomls ofconcem that sustain the study ofa literary work. These forms back up the
ideological and political assumptions, and their interpretations in a relation that appears to be a battle for
The purpose ofthis study is to highlight the dangers ofthe on-going theoretical and ideological battles in
literature and suggest a new theoretical interaction that questions the paranoiac culture.
Kev \\1'ords : Literature, Iheories, conspiracy, ethics, potilics.
formulated. John Lye elaborates more on the cont1icting
interplay between theories when he says:
...each theoretical perspective tends to
Litcrary conspiracy is about the nature and the flU1ctions
find fault with the one before -
ofthe ideological constructs in a text. My reading of
apparently a normal evolutionary
the current literary theories makes me helieve that critical
pattern, an orderly changing of the
stands originate from theories that affect the readers
paradigm guard, the child rebelling
that we are. In their varieties, literary theories appear
against the parent as a way ... of
as sources of division among the intellectuals who
proclainling its identity.'
always trace their intellectual stands to identifiable
In the light ofthe foregoing observation, conspiracy is
theories. Every constructed meaning can be traced to
less concerned with the way meaning is created than it
a theoretical assumption as propaganda or a negation
is with a socialization ofthe readers. This preoccupation
of the theory against which the present criticism is
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explains why theories are labelled political agendas
1. Literary Conspiracy: Time and Conditions
because whether literary meaning results from the
author's intention, is contained in the text or is created
i\\ccording to Encyclopaedia Britannica, «Conspiraey.
by the reader2, it is obvious to me that it is grounded
in Anglo-American law, is llsually described as an
within a theory that always associates an ideological
agreement between two or more persons to commit an
bond with a cultural community. Seen from this
lmlawful act or to accomplish a lawfu\\ end by unlawfiJl
perspective. literaI)' interpretation is always held within
means »1. This approach to the concept looks at
both theoretical and ideological frames with the
conspiracy theories as forces ofsocial, cthical, political
knowledge that each culture has its pre-structured logic.
or cultural discourses that characterize groups of people
This awareness is the key reason why one cannot
or institutions. These people or institutionsjoin torces
pretend to read literature withollt an accepted theory
in order to generate power and exercise control ovcr
that underlies his/her every created assumption into
othertheories by llsing secret methods. Universitics. as
proposing a social order from the writer's creative
the cradle for knowledge, become places af contlict as
they set up conditions whereby canspiracy is made
As one reads literature and relates it to the world
visible throllgh the recommendation ofpmiicular books.
happenings, one becomes aware ofthc fact that political
m1d the identified ideologies that need promoting. The
options (whether conservative, or dell10cratic or even
decision may aimto be in line with the policy of the
liberal) are held in abstraction in the writers' works. To
ruling orthe potential ruling authOlities. Conspiracy may
a further extent, this not only implies that writers
appear punctually as a need to solve a problem that
ill1plements are associated with theories that identify
arises. When the Ghanaian writer Annor Nimako \\\\yote
themselves with political, religious and social plans but
his novel Aluti/ated which, in the local context.met a
also points to the fact that thearies that underl ie the
certain acclaimed social need. an accepted political
writings and the art ofreading do not have to always
programme. the author got the 2003 i\\ward l'rom the
agree. In this connection, and accarding to Merrialll-
Ghana Library Board. hecause it filled into the glohally
Webster :\\' Colle~iate Dictionary. to conspire derives
slistained campaign against sexualmutilation in Ghana.
from the Latin con.\\pirare, which Il1cans «ta plot», «to
The book ccnters on Barbara Aseke. a school girl who.
act in hal1110ny toward a cOll1ll1on end»1 be it good or
as a result of
a brutal eircumcision. dies l'rom
ill-intentioned. ln other words, thcrc are coalitions tor
hemorrhagc. This educational approaeh to the
reading and writing that aim to prcscrve their group
contemporary Ghanaian society mcets the
identities and make other identitics and coalitions
Govel11ment's preoccupations to put an end to fcmalc
circumcision in contemporary nOlihem Ghm1a.
The purpose ofthis study is to show how
To me, the award is meant to celebratc an insight
theories conspire against one anothcr and how these
into a political agenda, a socialmanifesto. With this
theories shape political as weil as ideological powers
coincidence in conccrns between the writer and the
that impinge on the society. The scope ofthe work is
government, one is tempted to believe that political
the conditions and time ofthe conspiracy, the
authorities occasionally confide to both writers and
pathology of the conspiracy and a new ethics that
readers, who are not innocent oftheoretical influence,
could aim to improve the quality ofthe theoretical
for the achievement of politieal and organizational
interactions and enhance a useful interpretation of
programmes by having curricula modified to meet the
bath the theoretical and the cultural differences
expressed needs. Terry Eagleton substantiates this
notable in the Afiican context.
view, in his attempt to relate theories to pol ities, when
he observes: «certain theoretical concepts are ...from
time to time put to the uses ofpolitieal powcr...»'
Given the tàct that theories inl1l1ence bath readers
and writers, it is obvious that literary studies force
1 John
Lye. «Cont~mporary Lilcrary Thenry» in
h1\\ p)(~y\\\\ W. hrncJi.ll. calCil !II ishIc ou rs cs/~l)}!l/
political issues and ancct the decision making processçs.
1ilcrary Ihcor.rJH.!!!l .
A literaI)' cri tic, in his/hercapacity as a creat()[olîiterary
nies\\,.· <lppr"'I.\\(.;h~s 10 Ihe creation ur the lilnary llIt::lIlÎn~ arc
meaning. aets as a prolxlgandist or a Cènsor in n:btion
"Ul1I lofaI Id'Iw\\\\' crilics hclicvc Cl"itkislIl j~ C(lIHltll..'lI:d ill lih:ralll["c
to a literary \\\\ork . and in the process, pnl\\idcs LIS
uocconoOOOOOODDDD oooooooooc O[JOOOfX~-D[J
\\Vith. 1 think. t\\Vu di Ill:rcnt appmachcs tu c()llspiracy.
:<J~;L'r: JOJ cmODDDD. ODO: OOODDDDClŒllJ[lorm. ~]I :~~U:J::Ij~UOl!, :~aJ
With the tirsl al)pro;lch, the eonspiracy thcurics prl'SS

Sciences sociales et ilumaines
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themselves on the theories or literary approaches they
always hidden and identifiable reasons why a theory
are meant to fight, equipping theirsympathetic readersl
may conspire against another. Conspiracy appears to
cri tics with tools to be used to creatc meanings in their
increase the chance of survival to the conspirators and
approving fashion. 111e second approach seeks to point
the latter's influence on people. It breeds sympathizers
to every weakness of the already cxisting codes of
among the readers who always enhance the emergence
reading. As a matter of fact, no theory accepts to be
of new ideas and precepts.
refclTed to as a conspiring theory bccause most of the
ln the African literary context, colonialism, post-
existing theories pretend to be on the defensive guards.
colonialism, dictatorships and the consequences of
Yet, it is obviolls to me that they are the matrix ofliterary
these phenomena have given rise to the use of such
thoughts and provocative tools becallse oftheir way of
theories as Marxism, Socio-Criticism, and many more
questioning what is already accepted. Il is in this vein
whose aim is to offer ethical as weil as organizational
that Robert.T. C. Young sees literary theories as the
alternatives in terms of ideological reforms. Just like
«competing theoretico-political positions»]. Young
political and social theories, literary theories flourish at
identifies each theory with a political position, with the
the times ofcrises since it is the right moment to record
term politica! associated with a way of planning the
and experiment better strategies to tackle the rising
functioning of the society. With the assumption that
problems. Poverty, tribalism, ethnic bond, and
culture and tradition are the axes around which
spirituality, are among other things, the sources of
dcvelopment operates, there is every indication that thc
inspiration, and the cause of the many conspiracy
relations between the conspirators and their opponents
are sustained by forces, in the traditions, that shape
Literary theories emerge as a result of their
thcir different minds. Out hcre in society, and as a result
founders' failure to find othertheories capable oftaking
of the reading impact on them, parents and teachers
into account their concems. Promoters ofthese theories
are ideologically conditioned and thcrefore determine
sometimes feel obligated, in one way or the other, to
the ideological frames and the political orientations of
engage in this rational battle, the aim ofwhich is to
the people under their control.
correct misunderstandings and reshape bath the minds
and the actions ofthe readers to see the world move in
Literature in this vision is politics....
their desired direction. The ideology in tbis perspective
Cultllrally, it enhances culture in the way
is educational even though it sometimes turns to be
it takes into accowlt the prevail ing social
oppressive with the ideological dictatorship
. relations. Socially, it reviews people's
implemented by theorists who tailor their imagination
behavior. Politically. it denollnces the
to fit their ideological dictates.
excesses and points to the actual needs
What makes conspiracy an object ofstudy worth
in the ruling ofa peo[1le.~
undertaking is the identification ofthe oppressive forces
Theories shape preferences that are the
that stem from the claims inherent in the literary theories.
foundations for the political and ideological cffccts
Conspiracy stems from culture, race, tradition and
accountable to them.
This cultural and social
stylistic devices.
Joyce Cary's Mister Johnson
conditioning gives insight into how theories contribute
illustrates what 1posit here. In that novel, Cary uses
to thc socialization ofthe human being. In connection
Christian religion as a conspiring force against the Afiican
with social happenings, theories an: angles of visions
setting when he writes: « You don't know how happy it
for any society fàced with constant clises. In this respect,
is for women to stop being girls and to be civilized
it appears that theories do not conspire in a vacuum.
wives with loving Christian husbands who never beat
Considering the different waves such as cultural,
them and are their kind friends - just as good as
spiritual, economic, political and social crises that force
brothers»5. Through the depicted Christian Religion,
the literary imagination, theories associate with political
Cary substantiates the bcliefthat religion is an ideological
princip les from which readers as weil as writers tend to
force. To Cary's mind, only Christian husbands <<never
bring their reading to highlight the needcd social changes.
beat their wives». So, Mr. Johnson is the worthy suitor
Within the context ofchange, theories are marked
for Bamu, regarding his Christian status. Il seems
politics. Literary theories anchor imperious values,
obvious to Cary that an African woman in this context
gender perspectives, class distinctions, and other crises
expects nothing greater than to have a Christian husband
sustained by rhetorical devices through which the
as her partner.
representational power is released. Again, there are
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Ideological writmg is suggested in Cary's attempt
2. Pathology ofConspiraey Theories
to praye to his readers that in reading his African novels,
things need to be seen through Christian and British
ln their varieties, literary theories overlap, contrast
and sometimes cohere in the various ways they want
As a critic, Philip M. Allen is also known for his
to sustain their ideologies. Whether they are desired
conspiracy reading ofAfrican literature to suggest its
or incidental, these motivations need identification
worthlessness. One key example is fOLU1d withhim when
and location as to how they take control of people's
in Pan-African Journal (Fall 1971), he discussed
minds and dctem1ine their social actions. In the case
Yamoo Ouologuem: «The achievement ofOuolol,l1Jem's
of African Iiterature, pathological reading is about a
'" over-praised novel has more to do with whose
«certain specious criticism which flourishes in
ideological team he's playing on than with theforcïng
African literature today and which derives fTOm the
ofmoral universality on African civilizatiom)(, . The
saIlle basic attitude and assumption as colonialism
issue at stake here is the denial ofthe morality to Afiicans
itself and so mcrits the name colonialislJl.» 1
whom he sees forcing moral universality on their
Conspiracy is a disdain, an expression ofhostil ity to
some ideas or organized systems on the basis of
~ Whenever one is taken into this imaginary world,
prejudice. In this regard, colonialist criticism is
one-can never put a cIear cut distinction between an
pathological to the African ideologies and cultural
ideology and a theory on which Cary and Allen 's
values becausc no nobility is given to whatever is
writings stand. The two concepts are interwoven. Chinua
representative of the black continent.
Achebe refers to this kind ofWriting and interpretation
in a larger context as «colonial criticisnm. Literature, as
Conspiracy is based on the societal values that
a whole, seems to be associated with an ideology when
sometimes appear as packaged ideologies within the
seen against the background ofhow the European Illyth
fraIlles ofthe society's educational system. Conspiracy
ofsuperiority forces classification ofraces and cultures
is, to some extent, developed and sustained by
even in the creative world. In this connection, Ataféï
institutions that can impose their views ofthe society
Pewissi observes: «In the fictional country of Fada,
on the communities of readers and writers. lt is
situated in a fictional Nigeria, the basic ideology
pathological, when seen against the fact that culture,
developed is that ofthe inferiority ofthe Blacks and the
politics, and traditions inspire conspiracy in the process
superiority ofthe Whites.»7
ofprotecting peculiarities, i.e., class, race, culture, and
In this context created by both Joyce Cary and
identity with the paranoiac culture.
Philip M. Allen, the new moral impingeson the reader
The identification ofconspiracy pol icy and its
as a ghost that persuades him /her to accept the moral
pathological policy in the society are not easy. Yet, one
order of the narrative and, in the process, to associate
is brought to wonder what specific traditions and
every action in the creative world with an etemal decree
conditions help generate the conspiracy theory and allow
ofGod. Their Iiterary theory is shaped bya culture of
extem1ination in anonyrnity, manipulating every reader
to accept their philosophical approaches to the African
1 Chinmt Achebe.
« Colonial Criticisl11 )) (pp. 3-1 R) Chil1lw Achebe.
Morning }e! on Creation Day
and. through this articulation, to bring to maturity and
Jh"dnn : Heinemann. 1975. p.J.
to justification the beast that lies in the racist. This kind
ofdiscrimination is doubtlessly a way ofconspiring, a
social pathology.
William Bcnlon cd., Encyclopaedia Britannica Vol 6 (London: Encyclopacdia Brilnnnica, LId., )964). p. 378.
Tcrry EaglclOll, The IdeoloRJ' oflhe Aes/he/in
(Cambridge: Basil 13Iaekwell, 1990). p.5.
Robert J. C. Young, Torn NaIves Polilical (/nd Cullural Theory (Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press, 1(96). p. KR
J Ataféï Péwissi,
·'Th(! Prohlematics of the liera and 'he Notion ol Space and Time in Chiflllil Achehe:<; Nove/s" . .
Thèse pOlir le Doctoral Unique (N/R). Option: Littérature de "Afrique Anglophone. Soutenue
il Lomé
cn décembre 2003 SOIIS ln direction du
Professeur Komla ~cssanNubukpo. p.362 .
.~ Cary, ~fisler Johnson (London: Longmans. Greens and CoUd 196&).
(, Quotcd by Chinua Achebe in « Coloninl CrllÎcislll » (pp.3-1 K)
Chinua Achebe. Morhing }'CI on Creation nuy Ibadan. Heinemann. 1975
7 Atalèï Péwissi. The Problemafics of the 1h.'f'O and the NOlion of S'pace and nille in Chinua Achebe s Novel... thèse pour le Doctoral Unique (NI
R). Option: Litlératurc de l'Afrique Anglophone. Soutenue il Lomé en décembre 2003 sous la Direction du Professeur Komln Messan Nubukpo.
p. 319
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Sciences sociales et humaines
it to spread into becoming a factor in political and
a good social orientation, and in the r;rbcess, see the
culturallife. It is obvious that a mythical interpretation
prize as an evidence for their worldwide support. The
of the narratives, the projection of the crude myths
point needs raising, here, because the prize unfortunately
without any adaptation to the present needs and the
sharpens in readers the beliefthat a literary book that is
culture of selfness are the leading fixces to this social
prized by an institution deserves every person's respect
pathology. The conspiracy theory functions and
and the overwhelming acceptance of the ideologies
develops meanings in the cause --effect mode ofreading
highlighted in the book. This seems to me pathological
with a logic that aims to demolishotherpeople's entities
as' it may act as a source ofconspiracy to acommunity,
and values.
a culture, a race, and even a people. 1agree with Marie-
Here again. there is a reason for conspiring
Noëlle Gary-Prieur that one needs to learn something
theories in literature, sorne ofthem put in a crude manner,
about theories that a critic and a researcher use to give
other in a skilfully- articulated aesthetic and value
authority to their messages but one should not feel
position. «The aesthetic in this sense is», as Terry
bound to become pushed by them into accepting
Eagleton puts it, «the relay or transmission mechanism
whatsoever'. The danger, with loyalty to theories without
by which theory is converted to practice, the detour
a reasoned argument cemented by a collective concem,
taken by ethical ideology through the fèelings and senses
results from the fact that literature appears as an ideal
so as to reappear as spontaneous social practice» 1• ln
medium through which world institutions seek to
this respect, there is every reason to believe that literary
in1plement their cultural, racial and pàlitical dictatorships,
awards and literary prizes develop a conspiracy culture.
most often against the real needs ofthe people. They
Prizes idealize private political and ideological constructs
stimulate writers in their policy lines with the prizes and
to serve the ideologies and the politieal programmes of
other incentive measures. Theories associated with this
the fllnding/founding institution. Literary prizes and
battle conspire against other theories for the fultillment
awards are the illustrations of the satisfaction of the
oftheir objectives.
rewarding or funding institutions with the book earning
At the metaphoricallevel, conspiracy theories function
rewards. A book is worth earning il prize only when
on the basis of the negation of the other, thereby
communities ofreaders with identified tastes give their
developing the disease models ofsocial injustice. This
assent. which is the root cause 0 f the ideological
context, if maintained, develops and sustains hard
manipulation. Literary tastes or aesthetics are
conspiracy culture in literature reaching out to thè .
conventional and determine the reading conspiracy. As
political battles that are unfortunately associated with
conditions for literary awards and prizes are set based
violence in reallife situations. Plots and plotting are no
on tastes and identifiable aesthetics. they give rise to
more a mere theory ofsequencing the events but political
individual ideological interpretations especially when
acts as these indicate social options, organisations and
conditions offer occasions for personal and biased
structures on which individual appraaches to true life
imprint on the issue. This, again, is pathological because
it suppresses otheroptions out ofpreiudice. As a matter
lt is my contention that plots and plotting are, among
offact. Alfred Nobel, the Swedish industrialist and
other things, the seductive literary tactics that aimto
founder ofthe prize that carries his name failed to give
persuade the reader of the ideologies sustaining the
clear instructions as to how he wanted the Nobel Prize
theoretical corruption within the structures of the
awarded. What he said about the prize is that it should
conspiracy culture. Readers are manipulated through
go to those who «shall have confcrred the greatest
plots and plotting into forgetting the ideological
benefit on mankind» and «who shall have produced in
commitment of the writing. However, in close
the field ofliterature the most outstanding work in an
connection with Afiican literature, the emphasis on the
ideal direction»'. A probJem arises here as to how
themes ofidentities is not meant to destroy the relations
individuals can avoid building up their own ideologies
to otherness. Cultures are known from how they
along with the prize giving. 111e reading committees with
objectively differ. In our case, with the awareness of
their personal tastes have to detern1Îne what is of «the
the imperialist policy ofAfiica's cultural extermination,
6'fcatest benefit on mankind» in literature and what social
our culture survives because ofthe mention some African
direction is «ideal» trom the work. This vague statement
writers make ofit in their works. Tragedy results from
gives rise to hungry tastes and coalitions in close
the awareness that sorne western conspiracy theories
connection with the prize. As a reslllt, the ideologists
proscribed ways of reading African literature, and the
praye their various tastes «outstanding» and «ideal» for
values worth rewarding in it. As can be seen, African
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literature is taken as a good field for the development
me to achieve any ethical or sociological change
ofwestem designed projects on Africa's destiny. Here,
whatsoever without acting on the society and 1think
conspiracy appears as a policy that seeks to put
ethical criticism is a way to this literary project.
literariness in the service ofthe conspirators' religious,
Literature stands as a better medium that acts on the
political, historical, ethnic and cthical interests.
society through its readers. The study of conspiracy
Conspiracy builds up conflicting ideological bonds in
appears here as a way ofplotting against ideological
various spheres in the way a writer articulates the
forces that develop division and other discriminatory
cultural, social and the political issues in fiction. It is the
policies for the satisfaction of the conspirators who
duty ofethical criticism to point out what is amiss in the
constitute the minority against the overwhelming majority
of the people. So, ethics is here a way ofsuggesting a
new order on the basis ofwhat can set individuals free
3. Ethics: A Literary Approach to
from prejudice and ideologicai classifications ofvalues
Conspiracy Theories
regardless oftheir true contribution to the society. In
this regard, morality should not simply be seen through
ln the world of conspiracy, ethics appears as an ideal
the behaviour of the characters but also through the
approach to the increasing coalitions that aim at the
way the writer handles the language and mani pulates
destruction ofthe other. Inner orders need to be restored
incidents, characters and language to control the
b) aJapting one's tastes to the wishes ofthe community
readers' feelings. My opinion is that the violence that a
ereateJ and sustained by collective interest. As theories
reader decodes through a text possibly results from the
arc olten associated with political claims, it is essential
writer's violence on the words and the word-order. It
\\0 tight the perpetuai paranoia that characterizes literary
is generally agreed that words are innocent until they
theorics toda)'. «Paranoia» is according to Longman
are given a context, a role, an order and an orientation.
Diuionm)' of Eng/ish Language <Πtendency towards
The way the language is handled shapes the mood,
excessive or imltionai suspiciousness and distrustfulness
clarifies the assumptions and the preoccupations ofthe
charact.ers that are empowered by the writer to play
Ifa Iiterary theory shoulJ he a source ofpower
their different roles. If the beliefis that the mood is
to go hy. even the claim ofthc theories that pretend to
communicated through words and their interplay in
light on behalfofthe minority ShOllld do it with the
contexts, then the l'ole oftheories is to provide readers
knowlcJge that to he a victim docs not always mean to
with tools that can condition their understanding and
bc a saint. Style and truc commitment to social welfare
interpretations oftexts with our identification ofwhat
should transcend the culture ofreVl:nge that scems to
our society needs to solve its various crises. Theories
permeate many critics' works. 1strongly hel ieve.like
are creatcd within a mythical canon, time and space to
this critie qlloted by Eagleton, that «Manners arc what
generate «humour, interest, and pleasure>/' in the reader.
vex ami sool.he. corrupt or purify. exalt or de hase.
Il is from this background information that, 1think, a
barbarise orreline us .... They add morals, they supply
writer chooses to highlight the aspect that appeals to
them, or they totally destroy them».' Ifthis approaeh
his/her imagination in order to make the reader an
to literaturc is internalized, the struggle on behalfofthe
nctivist and a creator oflhe social antidotes. From the
minority will happily take reconciliatOlY options that heal
very lot of symhols and imageries that a reader
both the victim and the culprit, at least, on the moral
encounters in the nct ofreading, he or she orients his/
ground. 1think il errbneous to minimize the impOltance
her potential readers to what secms worth taking from
of the ethical approach to literature at thisjuncture of
the book. In t!lis \\ein.literature remains an ideal space
the increased social, political and cultural crises. Il is
for the cthical eneounters so far as it makes il possible
reasonable to venture into ethical criticisl11 because
for the individual readers to exchange their world
ethics is about a person's relationships to others; it
perceptions \\Vith the characters' and their identifiable
stands in opposition to paranoiac undertaking ilf which
personalities. Ethics is an attempt to devclop peace
theories and the culture of particularism stand as
culture in individuals in order to create values that
illustrations. It is worth noting that the ethical criticism
pcrpetuate freedom,justice and peace through reading,
that 1undertake to discuss here is not a course of moral
writing and persona1commitrnent. 1ab'ree with Diénéba
prescriptions bccause 1believe that litcrature is not about
Doumbi for whom peace culture presupposes thc
pure description. This study is an approach that weighs
de"c1opmcnt ofvalucs that arc in close conneclion with
chances that individuals have to rebuild their society
ti'cedom,justicc, democraey, diversity, understanding.
fi'ol11 the potentialities within. Il seems impossible to
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dialogue, respect ofHuman Rights, non-violence, Right
ta life, environmental protection, and sustained
development7 because these values enhance the quality
of li1è even in fiction.
With the identification ofthcse values the task
should be ta venture into how the different literary
theories and institutions contributc ta peace and its
cultivation as the foundation of political and social
wei fare. This is attainable if theories in their varieties
could give up their paranoiac culture that continues
laying new obstacles ta the process that might make a
persan a moral being, but not a being that sporadically
perfOlTI1S isolated acts ofmorals. It is essential, even in
the imaginative wor/d, «ta cease kgislating for aH
lives what is liveable only for some, and simply, ta
refrain tram proscribing for ail lives what is wlliveable
for some»~. Ta me, this approach is essential, iflife is ta
make sense ta each and every person,and not ta the
isolated selves. With this ethical culture one may see
the emergence of the trans-cultural theories the aim of
which should he ta elaborate on values that bring people
together with a more humanizing phi losophy. TIle attempt
brings ta light every discriminatory use of the
imagination, some ideologicaJly-blind approaches to life
regardless of its impact on the society as a whole.
Theorists' raIe should rathcr be to enablc rcadcrs!
eritics, outside conspiracy, ta con11'ont «ail ofwhat we
are and might become, Llndcrstanding what is required
ifwe wish ta live l'ully human»') des pite ail that holds
our imagination captive.and makes our lives miserable.
This study on conspiracy theories has tried to
trace the conditions, and time ofthe manipulations in
the art ol'writing and reading literaturc. Conspiracy
lï"crry LagJcton. The Ideu/o}!.)' of '/11: :ft!sllll.!lics, p. ·HL
culture results from the reading committees and the '--. '1: 2 .http://WvtW.WStlCWS,ÇOllliljlWICS/.!(j()3JIÜ/U21Ql!!.l1L1l1:1I11) n 1 JiLshtllll
funding institutions that shape tastes and interests in thc
Marîe-Noëlle GARY-PRIEUR. DC! /" gramwmre
cl la linguistique:
l'él//de de la phrase (Paris )"''''. Armand Colin. 1985) p.6 (a
writers who thirst for fame and financial support.
~ !,on?,man Diclionllr)' of En?h~·!J '"lltl?,uOKC. Longlllan, ]9X4.
Besides, po verty appears as a conspiring force in the
p.1 065.
poor in so far as it allows neither the rcader nor the
" Quotcd in Tcrry Lag[ctoll. The Idcu/o}!.)' al/he AeSI"elics. op. cil.
p. 42
writer to be him!herself. Ifwe should take the case of
,. James M. Banner, Jr., and Harold C. CannolL lÏle Elemen/s of
the Third World Literatures, in general, and African
LeuminF;. New Ila"cn and London: Yale University Press. 1999 .
., niCn(:ha Doumbia. « Education scolaÎre à la culture de la paix:
literature, in particular, the tastes and aspirations ofboth
valeurs el types d'éducalion )} in Revue du CA Mf."S. Nouvelle Série
the writers and the readers change to accord with the
Il. vol. O()7 n"\\-20()6 (\\ cr semestre) (pp.221-231).
~ Judith Bulhlcr, Undoing Gender (New York and London. 2(04).
funding institutions. In this work, attcmpt is also made
to show how theorists develop and implemcnt their
" Introduction (pp.xl-xvi) hy Bernestine Singlcy,
Wlten Race Becomes Real, Black and White Wrileno Confrolll Their
hidden ideologies by making rcaLicrs aware of the
Personal llis/ories. (Chicago: Lawrence Ilill
Dooks, 2(02), p. xvi.
situations in which writers and readers must construct
identity. And they establish a cOlIDection wiÙl community,
gender, race, sex-based education, and social
Revue du CAMES" Nouvelle Série B, Vol. 007 N° 2-2006 (2''''' Semestre)

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