Sciences sociales et humaines
tion "in ways that arejust as identifiable as Australian or
American" and made this prediction:
Before very long it is likely that the common
features of African English - or at least of a west Afri-
can or East African or Central African variety - will
Département d'Anglais
have becn authoritatively described in modern linguistic
and phonetic terms. Once this has been done it is a rela-
tively small step in principle (though a very large one in
practice )to the construction of specialized course mate-
rials for teaching English in which it is Africun English
that forrns the implicit and explicit target (Strevens. 1969
The least one can sayat this stage is that no-
the EFL c1assroom was once formulated in these
body as yet actually teaches an African variety of En-
glish. and doubts are olten ra:sed as to whether such
Teachers of English abroad, especially perhaps
varieties of English (e.g. West African English) exist at
those to whom English is a Foreign tongue must have
ail and are identifiable in ways such as predicted by
. asked themselves from time to time in recent years ifail
Strevcns, or are desirable targets in the c1assrooms.
Under such circumstances the question clearly is "what
is weil with the basic aim oftheir teaching . Ail language
-learning is essentially imitation, but imitation ofwhat or
model of ElIglish sustains the efforts of Togolese teach-
whorn? If native users of English do not ail speak or
ers of English?
write English alike , what is the foreign teacher to do ?
Is West African English a Suitable Target
Which form of English should he adopt as a model for
for West Arricau Students ?
himself and his pupils ? There are in fact several variant
We have already said that a native-speaker-
forms of the language with sorne claim to serve as a
model is the generally accepted target in EFL areas
model ;hencethediffkulty . (Christorphersen, 1960: 127-
(Togo, Benin, Senegal, etc.). We must now add that even
in ESL countries like Ghana or Nigeria where the local
The question of the model of English that should
varieties of African English are said to exist the native
be taught in the schools and universities in French-speak-
speaker remains, paradoxically enough, the target in the
ing West Africa is not, however, a real issue at this mo-
ment. As in other EFL areas, a native speaker model is
Todd (1982) reports that "With the exception of Liberia,
considered appropriate here. Still manya teacher of Eng-
it would be accurate to claim that in most West African
lish in the West Africa context (EFL or ESL) would re-
states, standard English is equated with British norrns"
late to the question raised above, or to the terms of the
(P.186). And it will 00 just as accurate to say that in
following dilemma :
reality few West Africans speak English like English-
As a Swede teaching in the English department of a
men or like Americans (American norms are not dis-
Swedish University, 1am constantly faced with the prob-
puted today) and most speak il identifiably Iike Africans.
lem of choosing a suitable variant or English to teach to
Strevens' contention that the latter do so "because of
undergraduatcs : British or American English, different
the failure of English teaching, DOt because of its suc-
styles of discourse and linguistic variants used by differ-
cess" (1969 : 196) - does bring out the discrepancy 00-
ent strata of the population, to mention the most obvious
tween the product emerging from the schools and the
ones. Obviously, at university level, one does not nor-
"British English" policy.
mally have to face the naive leamer who demands to be
Should West African English, then, be perceived
taught what is 'right' or 'wrong' in English. Most under-
as the target in the schools ?
graduates have greater sophistication and are more sen-
sitive to the subtler nuances of language than that. Yet
Should we say English in West Africa or
the problem of fmding a suitable variant to teach in not
West Arrican Engüsh ?
an easy one to solve. (Tottie, 1977 : 203).
Speaking of the language problem in African
The idea appeared in the carly sixties, advocated
education two dec:tdes ago Strevens (1969) contended
by Halliday et al (1964), that local varieties of English
that anglophone countries ofAfrica were in a transitional
could perfectly be adopted as models for the teaching of
per.iod that would eventually see, as it were, Africans
English as a 5'lCOOdlanguage. T~ "new EI)g1ishes"
using English in national and international communica-
(as they are sometimes called ) provide the countries
IRev. CAMES - Série B, Vol 004, 2002

----...,.....-----------------_Sclences sociales et humaines
where they exist (former British colonies) with " their
ing 1 dress up for breakfast").
own 'model' of English and permit the school genera-
Furthermore, what should the teacher make of
tion to orient their learning towards a home - grown
the use of the phrasai verb 'dress up' as in the example
product rather than an imported one" (Hall iday et al 1964
above, or normalization such as 'the absents' and 'the
: 294).
presents' which have ail found their way into the class-
West Africa for example has a number of such
room - authentic products imported from the world just
countries ( e.g. Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra-Leone etc.) and
outside the school ? Should he accept them as 'West
"an educated West African English' is emerging to re-
African use' or should he treat them as errors ? Il is
place 'British English with RP' as a mode!. It is still En-
hard to tell.
glish as a foreign language, and the teaching of English
The term 'West African English' is widely used
is still an L2 operation" (Halliday et al, 1964 : 294).
today but it does not translate the reality that sorne lin-
Strevens (1981) now assumes that this 'educated
guists assume. Spencer says that "there is certainly a
West African English' has emerged as a full grown prod-
sufficiency of terms and expressions peculiar to the use
uct, with an identity of it own, and it meets the "two
of English in this region to justify the term "West
basic criteria"
Africanism", even if it is not in many cases easy to say
he and his col1eagues once
indicated as determining
how widespread they are or how permanent they are
"whether a variety of English is acceptable for use as
Iikely to be" (1971 : 28).
an educational mode]" (Halliday et al, 1964 : 296)1. But
Todd (1982) doesn't believe in the indisputable
the reality of what is known as West African English is
existence of the so-called West African English either,
still an elusive one. Strevens seems to posit - so do
since, as he argues:
Platt et al
(1984) - its existence rather than to refer to
... a definitive study has not yet been made of standard
something indisputably established and recognized.
West African English, although studies of Ghanaian and
Spencer (1971) examines the wide range of uses
Nigerian English exist. It is a written standard based mainly
and users of the English language in West Africa and
cn British norms, although it reflects West African cul-
ture especial1y III vocabulary. Standard English is, for the
As one might expect , there are weil established
moment, the only variety of English in West Africa with
terms necessitated by the use of English in natural and
recognized orthography and the aim of most educated
external environment previously foreign to il. A new tlora
West Africans is that their use of the standard language
and fauna had to he coped wilh : hence such items as
should differ in no fundamental respect from standard
silk carton tree, a pleasant arbareal oxymoron for a
British usage (Todd, 1982 : 285).
very elegal/t tree. /lot. hawever exc!uâw to West Af
Tregidgo ( 1987) doesn't say anything different,
rica .. or grass-cutter, a .l'mal! West African rodent.
and he also , Iike Spencer, shows a concern for related
ln addition there are the compounds which have been
language problems in the classrooms : Where English is
created to refer to objects or institutions which are ei-
a second language as opposed to a foreign language, it
ther truly indigenous, or tlle result ofthe syncretism aris-
becomes to some extent the property of the non-native
ing out of the meeting and the mingling of European and
user; it is adapted to his or her own purposes, and re·
African cultures: such terros as, for example, chewing
flects his or her own culture. Africans themselves have
- stick (a piece of wood from a particular kind of plant
often resisted this notion, especially in the presence of a
or tree used for c1eaning the teeth ), head - tie (Iength
British teacher, and c!aim to want ta learn slandard
of c10th tied decoratively round the head of a WOl1lan ),
British English. The fact remains that in West African
market mammy (woman trader), mammy wagon (hy-
countries English has already been adapted in certain
brid vehicle with a 10cal1y built body serving as both lorry
characteristic ways; in pronunciation, in vocabulary and
and bus, and capable of carrying goods and - very un-
general expression, even in certain marginal points of
comfortably - passengers from town to town) ... (Spen-
grammar ; and many teachers will find difficulty in de-
cer, 1971 : 28-29).
ciding how far to go in 'correcting' certain features in
order to make them conform to the British norm. Shou Id
Spencer goes on to point out a number of En-
one, for example, accept a storey-building : He has trav-
glish terms which have not resisted, so to say, the se-
elled (for He is away) ; We are tight friends; they were
mantic intluences from the local culture pattern - for
making noise, etc. , ail ofwhich are commonly used in
example kinship tenns such as "sister," "cousin" are of-
West African English ? Should one try to reduce the de-
ten used in ways that would totally confus.: the white
gree of formality in writing, or in greetings, which is in-
owners of the language, or such uses of the English
grained in West African culture? Such questions remain
phrasai verbs as "dress up"(for example "Every morn-
Rev. CAMES - Série B, Vol 004, 2002 1

- - - - - - - - ' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ' ' S c i e n c e s sociales et humaines
highly debatable (p. 192).
terms that he has indicated "and is felt bythe local speech
Throughout his discussion of the use of En-
community to be a desirable form" (1981 :88). We may
glish in ESL communities in sub-Saharan Africa,
wonder, in case the local English "passes", so to slJeak,
Gorlach (1991), Shows his malaise as to identifYing
the intelligibility test, whether the other necessary dif-
'Englishes' or English on the continent - a malaise that
ferences Strevens demands matter at ail ! And as re-
clearly reads in the title of the chapter that deals with
gards the "speech community" that is to "fcel" whether
the topic : "English in Africa - African English ?" He
the local form of English is desirable, does it include the
then says he is using the terms " African English" and
whole range of speakers - that is , speakers of pidgin
"West African English" only "Ioosely" (p.123) through-
English, "near-pidging" (Strevens' term), etc. - or is it
out the discussion, just as Quirk ( 1988) points out that
limited to the educated elite, which is always a small
we ail have only talked, so far, pretty freely of 'Nige-
minority in black Africa ?
rian Engl ish', 'West African English' ... , hypostat ising
Kachru is another linguist who has written so
what remains at best rather general abstractions
extensively about the state and use of English in "the
outer circle"l
that one can hardly discuss the i$suewe
And so the problem - English in West Africa - West
are concerned with here without mentioning him. He
African English ? - remains and is not easily solved.
argues that :
A non-native model may be treated as a com-
Another kind of 'Heresy' ?
petitive model for teaching Ellglish as L2 if it fulfills cer-
A memorable reaction to Halliday et al. 's pre-
tain conditions. ln attitudinal ternls, a majority of L2
viously discussed proposai was Prator's polemical pa-
speakers should identifY themselvcs with the modij')ting
per "The British heresy in TESL" (1968) in which he
label which marks the non-nativeness of a model : for
poses the problem that interests us most here and ex-
example, lndian
English speakers, Lankan English
presses his position in a forthright way :
speakers, Ghanaian English speakers. A person may
...The heretical tenet 1 feel 1 must take exception to is
be a user of lndian English but may not consider it the
the idea that it is best, in a country where English is not
"norm" for his linguistic performance. There is thus a
spoken natively but is widely used as the medium of
confusion betwcen linguistic norm and linguistic hehav-
instruction, to set up the local variety of English as the
ior (Kachru, 1982 : 39).
ultimate mode! to be imitated by those learning the lan-
lt appears through this and the ongoing discus-
guage (Prator, 1968 : 459).
sions that the question of identification with the local
Many of Prator 's arguments seem just as valid
English is a tricky one. We may assume that educated
now to refute Strevens' later stand on the adoption of
speakers of the local form-that is, those who substan-
West African English for teaching purposes, not only
tially lise the language in their daily lives or activities -
in the ESL contexts, blIt in the EFL areas as weil.
are the persons who should normally identifY with it. But
Strevens justifies his position as follows :
they don't, as Sey appositely remarks :
ln many parts of the world, ... , those who use
The linguist may be able to isolate features of

English have attitudes towards their local L2 form of
Ghanaian English and describe them . But once these
English not greatly different from the' attitudes which
are made known to him, the educated Ghanaian would
native speakers have towards their LI form of English:
strive to avoid them altogether. The surest way to kill
they take it for granted as part of their corporate cul-
Ghanaian English, if it really exists, is to discover it and
tural identity. But these identities are not the same in
make it known" (1973: 10, quoted in Gorlach, 1991: 133).
the two cases; it is part of the identity of the L2-using
It is worth noting, furthermore ,that while sorne
community not to be the same as the British or Ameri-
Nigerians are diffident about c1aiming the existence of
cans. Language education in a given country, there-
a Nigerian English and sorne others boldly say there is
fore, may necd for pragmatic reasons to include En-
no such thing as Nigerian English (cf. Jibril, 1982), others
glish, but the pedagogical model selected for English
have no problem proclaiming, as it were, its existence
must retlect local or regional characteristics. lt must
and even identifYing a standard form of it (e.g. Akere,
(a) he mutually intelligible with ail other national and
1982; Bamgbose, 1982).
international forms, but (b) it must also be different
Hence the tirnely remark by this Nigerian educator that
from ail others, and (c) recognizably an L2 forIn, not
"one obvious implication of titis discrepancy is that,
an LI form (1981 : 88).
for a long time to come, standards of correctness in
So in Strevens' opinion, a local form of English
Nigerian English will most liJcely remain a vexed ques-
is suitable for ELT purposes provided that it exist in
tion. A byproduct of this state of uncertainty is that
1Rcv. CAMES - Série B, Vol 004, 2002

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Sciences sociales et humaines
man)' teachers of English in Nigeria will continue to
What model of English for ELT purposesin
be like the blind leading the blind, with the ultimate des-
tination being hazy and cloudy" (Adegbija, 1989: 176).
ln EFL areas there exists no local L2 form of English
It 50 appears that the "heresy" Prator once de-
: consequently the most suitable pedagogical model is

nounced has survived, and the number of"heretics" has
usually a native-speaker model. In foreign-language
somewhat grown - to the dismay of many. Kachru, one
teaching generally, the normally accepted target is that
of the "heretics", is reported to have said, with regard to
of the educated, metropolitan native speaker. Excep-
the discrepancy just discussed, that if Nigerian, or
tions can occur : Togo provides a possible counter -
Ghanian, or West African intellectuals or educational
example. In Togo, English is a foreign language, but
authorities have such a problem with English it is be-
with Ghana and Nigeria so close, and given the wide
cause, like other non-native users of English elsewhere,
public acceptance of West African English, it is not
they "seem to pass through Iinguistic schizophrenia, un-
unreasonable if in Togo, too, this ESL form becomes
able to decide whether to accept a mythical non native
die target even in an EFL country. West African En-
model, or tô recognize the local functional model instead"
glish seems a more suitable target for Togo children
(p. 982:50).
than British or American English (Strevens, 1981 :90).
But we would and actually can see Quirk (1988)
Perhaps the idea of West African English be-
in the role of Prator fighting this other "heresy". As he
coming the target in Togolese schools and institutions
of higher education wou Id appear, at present at (east,
We have a vision of education systems confront-
as the fad of some starry-eyed intellectuals. Although
ing a complexity undreamed of in Germany or Japan,
considered in light of the general concern of easing the
where there is unquestioning acceptance of an external
language burden for the African student, or developing
(i.e. native) standard for the teaching of English. And 1
culturally suited materials for our situation, the proposaI
wonder how realistic the vision is . How Iikely is it that a
may seem attractive.
minister of education in Delhi or Lagos will provide re-
sources for teaching to a model derived from nonnative
The Togolese context of Teaching
norms - - especial1y any that could be charactl;rized as
1 Learning English
low on the ~Iine of Englishness ? It is not encouraging
Education in Togo as in most parts of Africa
to retlect that, although Kachru has been publishing on
South of the Sahara, is a second language education
Indian English for 25 years - - prolifically, eloquently,
(French in Togo). As such it is plagued with ail the prob-
elegantly - - there is still no grammar, dictionary, or pho-
lems created by the fact that young swdents have to
nological description for any of these nonnative norms
learn a Foreign language - the medium of instruction in
that is, or could hope to become, recognized as authori-
the school - while being taught in the same language.
tative in 1ndia, a description to which teacher and learner
Perren (1969) observed the situation in English - speak-
in lndia could turn for normative guidance, and from
ing Africa and noted :
which pedagogical materials could be derived (p.235-
The result has been. often enough, that children have
begun secondary courses with quite insufficient ability
The question, then, whether West African En-
to do more than memorize selected texts or parts of
glish should become the target in West African schools
them, with very low reading skill and without the ability
is, as it is, a vexed question - because, for one thing, not
to discuss, question or criticize facts, ideas or doctrines.
many West Africans or local eduéational authorities
They have indeed passed unsuitablc examinations on
consider such a move desirable (Gorlach, 1991)2 and,
this basis, but it can be qUt:stioned whether they have
for another, and perhaps more importantly, no such En-
been educated into citizens whose full pOlential can be
glish has been described or given a status in terms such
exploited. The situation persists into university educa-
as those demanded by Quirk for example. As was noted
tion and possibly colors theteaching as weil as the leam-
earlier on, such designations as Ghan8'Ïan English, Nige-
ing (Perren, 1969: 202).
rian English, or West African English are just being used
The same words can still describe the situation
"loosely" or "freely"- aIthough no ~ne can deny that
today, not only in anglophone countries, but in
the English language has been adapted in certain ways:
francophone areas as well. Recent rcsearch focuscd
(phonological, grammatical, etc.), so as to be capable of
on these latter areas has demonstrated that the sw-
expressing the socio-cultural reality of the milieu.
dents do not understand what the teacher says; and do
not understand what they read in their books - which is
1 See notes p. 20
in fact a réal Iiteracy problem in the cJassroom, and at
l See notes p. 20
Rev. CAMES - Série B, Vol 004, 2002 1

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - S c l e n c e s soclales et humaines
alllcveis (Champion 1986; Chaudenson, 1989).
Secondary school students generally show a
very favorable attitude towards English in the begin-

Lafage (1985) reports that when the deteriora-
ning, but the motivation is not maintained throughout
tion of education in Togo became so acute as to become
the school career. Sorne of the causes of the loss of
the concern of public opinion - and much to the embar-
interest are the overemphasis on theoretical grammar,
rassment of the educational authorities - it was French,
translation, and the lack of opportunity to use English.
the medium of instruction in the schools, that was tirst
Sometimes English is not even used in c1ass. There is
incriminated. And rightly so.
also the fact that classroom procedures are too often
The following passage from The Village ofWait-
examination driven, and English has a "general educa-
ing (1988) in which the author. George Packer, recounts
tion subject" label attached to it, which makes it a sub-
his experience as a Peace corps Volunteer teaching EFL
ject routinely taught and tested.
in Togo describes a situation 1 know weil, and is elo-
It appears necessary to rebuild. as it were, the
quent about what kind of, and how, teachingilearning
teaching of English in Togo today. This requires sorne
"happens" in the literacy - impoverished c1assroom :
kind ofrcappraisal of the philosophy or general attitude
that informs classroom practices and language educa-
Then there were the copybooks. In the almost
tion objectives. And this is one of the things 1 bclieve.
complete absence of textbook, these lined notebooks
became the students' lifeline. They also seemed to take
Wbat 1 Believe
the place of thinking. In their copybooks students wrote
Since West African English (Ghanaian. Nige-
down with the care of med ieva1scribes every word their
rian, etc.) do not exist in a sense earlier indicated, none
teacher deemed important enough to utter. Enter a mis-
ofthem can be taken into the c1assroom in Togo. Nei-
take in one and it might never get corrected ; lose one
ther the educational authorities - no official document
and a student might as weil quit school. 1 once had to
1 have consulted on the teaching of English at the vari-
correct a geography teacher's exam. One of Kafui's
ous levels says anything about the model of English to
questions was
be taught, which is an indication that the tradition of
"Qu'est-ce que le Nil?" (What is the Nile ?)
teaching an overseas model remains unquestioned -
response, every studeqt wrote : "Le Nil est loin des plus
nor do the students 1 know feel it desirable to teach/
grands fleuves du monde" - a piece of nonsense
(earn an English of the neighborhood.
translating to "The Nile is far from the biggest rivers in
Richards' contention is upheld here - a basic
the world." 1 had marked twenty tive answers wrong
motivational difference between the learning ofEnglish
before 1 understood the mistake. The c1ass had thought
in ESL and EFL settings is that, in the latter, "there is
she said "loin des plus grands" instead of"l'un des plus
always an effort to acquire an overseas standard form
grands" ("one of the biggest ... ") and duly inscribed the
of Engl ish" ( 1979 : 107).
mistake in their copybooks. The sentence had gone from
If the model in Togo is the educated native
mouth to copybook to exam Iike a defective prodùct
speaker model as it is in EFL in general. One may
moving along an automated assembly line.
wonder whether this is not setting unrealistic goals for
Kafui laughed at the error, at the students' stupidity -
the students or inviting them to do so themselves. Smith
but not at the system that wanted mimicry without
( 1983) makes interesting remarks about language model
thought. The} should have listened better, she said (p.
and performance target that seem opportune in answer-
ing that question:
It is, then, in a context of serious language diffi-
... PERFORMANCE TARGET relates to the
culties ( to say nothing of other difficulties, e.g. poverty,
LANGUAGE MODEL but need not be identical to it .
the large classes) that the teaching and learning of En-
The target is what we are aiming for . It is what we
g1ish take place. It is not surprising that the result of
want our students to be able to do when they complete
such an enterprise is generally poor . What Obanya (1971 )
their work in our educational system. Vou will note that
tells us about the situation in Senegal is true of Togo and
, the performance target in a foreign language situation
other francophone countries as weil; "English has al-
is to achieve the performance level of the educated
ways been a compulsory subject but people have for
native speaker. It is the same as the LANGUAGE
long felt dissatistied with the way it is taught. Almost
MODEL. This has always becn the goal in the foreign
every Senegalese undergraduate complains of his inability
language situation,
to speak English in spite ofyears' compulsory study of
yet it is almost never reached . In fact, very few teach-
the language in the secondary school" ( p.132).
ers expect any of their students to achieve this level of
1 . . ., CAMES - Série 8, Vol 004, 2002

Sciences sociales et humaines
mastery. but it is the target ncvertheless . This is also
their purposes in life -to become hotel boys, or tourist
often Ihe cause in s(:cond language situation but some-
guides. or seientists, ifthcy themseives. the teachers, do

times institutions and leachers aim for the performance
not learn about these occupations and know how tl:ose
level of an edueated speaker orlhe local English vari-
engaged in Ihem communieate ? '" (Debysuvarn, 1981:
ety ( p.18).
1 bclieve Ihal. ail things considered. El T in
These are very illleresling questions tor EFL
1 ngo çan keep away l'rom Ihe debate of adoptill," dll
teaehers in llur eontcxts. How do wc explain the fact
"appropriate mode!"' of English for Ihe çomexl. \\\\ ith-
Ihal sOl11any ESP or EST "arrangements" tàil? Are the
out things getting worse Ihan they are in the field at
needs of special interest group~ met in the classrooms ?
present. The besl lllle can wish is thal English leach-
And abo\\'C ail is ELT addressing tb~ Ilirger ~Oll:
crs in Togo become aware of sueh debales and. bc-
cern of litcraey - in a country llr eountries where English
)ond this. of the Iheories or a'iSlllnptinns Ihat infilrln
holds the I110St favored positinn among the other foreign
their practices - for they ma) he çalled upnn lojustify
languages? Il cano and it is high time EFL teaehers "dis-
these anv lime. or be made hl lecl inalÎequale il they
~oyere(rthis pntemiality nftheir profession in the~e West
çan '1.
African seHings.
Alread). Smith rightly points out that in this
allo other similar cnntexts where Ihc 1l1Ooei is the eOIl-
cated native speakcr mode\\. "non-nat ivc English
It is possible to suggest twn hasic critcria tll Je-

,peaking teachers arc made to teei inadequate. nn
termine whether a varietv nf Fnglish is accePtable for
matter ho\\\\ profkient they arc" (1983 :18). And sup-
use as an edueational mode!. Fir,!, it must bc a variet~
pnse cf· L leachers in TOGO no\\\\ set nut to teach an
açtually used hy a rea,onabl) large body orthe pnpula-
African model of the language Ihey themselves arc
tinn. in particular by a proportion oftllll'ie \\vhose le\\elof
not profieiem in. nr do not know thc e:>.istcnce of (as-
education makes them. in nther rcspects. desirabie l11od-
'iuming that such J\\friean Englishes cxist! ... ) what \\\\ill
cl>. !his mean'i that wc wou Id exclude f<JrI11S of Lnglish
the outC()l11e be? Uner confusion. without any doubt.
\\\\hid1 have been in\\elllcd or il11portcd and hcar no rcia-
tion to the professional and etiuçational standards of the
cnuntry. Second. it musi be l11utually inteiligible w ith other
lt eventually appears thal the e:>.isting model nfEn-
variet ies of English used hy similar prolCssinnal and edu-
gl ish that is taught in Tllg()/ese c lassrllllms -- and l110rc
eatcd groups in other cnumries. This estabiishes a n'-'l:-
generally in francophlllle west Africa --ean pl"{wide
essary 1ink bet'Yeen. let us say. cdueated \\\\est Afri,:an
the studem \\Vith the kind nI' bnglish they nccd to fUIll:-
English. educated lndian English and educated Iiritish
tion in various contexts. n()n-native and native. The
llr AU'itralian. ()n the praetieal planc ofilllelligibility: 11'd
nllltivation for iearning an merseas standard fml11 -
it tl)lllms l'rom this that Ihe extent of de\\ ialinn tÎ\\ll11
w hich is still very mueh alive among these students -
Standard English grammar and lexis must be sl11al!.
can only be thwarted by a thoughtless or 1:I1al1l:Y in-
(p. 296)
troduet ion of a nl'n-nat ive form of bnglish into the
Kachru (1988) discusses an "inner
classrool11. J\\nd motivali()n. as wc know is ail impor-
eirclc" of those nations traditionally assneiatcd with the
Innt for learning t() happen.
English language. an "nu ter circ le" of the nations that
are in the process of nativizing oheir f<JrIns nt') English.
What docs not seem to comc up at eonferenœs and
and lastly an ··c:>.pandlllg circle" nI' naLion'i whieh arc in
seminars on leacher education i'i hl)\\\\' mali) l'Iher kind'i
the proce'iS ofadopting English in \\arinus \\\\a\\s Ill!" \\ari-
ofEngli'ih should tead1ers he familiar with') Can teach-
nus purposcs.
crs read sciemiriç Fnglish? Is their scicnœ education
haçkground wnduçi\\e tn sueh an aelivity'~ Are teach-
Most educationai nuthoritic'i h~lving i'1-
crs able to ditferemiate hetwcen the sl,eial scicnces
herited thc English language and nntions of cprreClncss
and the natllral 'icienccs. and the way the two groups
l'rom colonial times. still nominally uphold a British nmm.
of di'iciplines arc treated b) wrilers'? Are bo()ks being
den~ ing Ihat a loca lized form of English has developld
written for non- native teachers to help them move
or is emerging: ail deviances ha ve to be exp laincd as
towards the reading of the two branches of sçienœs
imperfections arising l'rom incomplete language acquisi-
to serve their nceds '? At the other end are the trades
tion (Gnrlach.1991 :133 J.
and v()cations'? How are teaehers to prepare students
tllr the kinds of English that they must know t() mect
By "Ianguage M()der' Smith says he
Rev. CAMES - Sërie B. Vol 004.200.' l

-----------------------~Sciences sociales et humaines
"mean~, the written and spoken text which is usoo in the
Illinois Press; Urbana Chicago.

c1assroom as examplcs of the so-callcd "standard" The
textbook IIl1d the tapes 111 the language lab wou1d be
Englishes." ln B.B. Kachru (ed.)
included under this he!'cting" (1983: J8).
1988. "The Spread of English and Sa-
cred Linguistic Cows." in P.H.
Adegbija, E. J989 - "LexÎ::o-Semantic '/a~iatiol1
Lowenberg (ed.) 1988 Language
ln Nigerian English".
Spread and Language Policy: Is-
ln World Englishes. 8.2
sues, Implications and Case Stud-
Akere, F. 1982 - "Socio Cultural Constraints and
ies. Georgetown University Press
Washington D.C.
Emergence of a Standard Nigerian
Lafage, S. - 1985. Français Ecrit et Parlé en Pays
English" in J.B Pride, (ed.) New Englishes,
Ewe (Sud-TOGO). SELAF, Paris.
Newsbury hou se Publishers, Rowley Mass.
Lowenberg, P.H. (00.) Language Spread and Lan-
- Bangbose, A. 1982 - "Standard
Nigerian English:
guage Policy:
Issues of
Issues, Implications and Case Studies. Georgetown Uni-
Identification" in B.B. Kachru (ed.).The Other
versity Press Washington D.C. 1988.

Tongue University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Chi-
McArthur, T. 1987 "The English Language and the
Bokamba E.G. 1982 - "The Africanization of En-
Languages" in Bolton; W.F. & Crystal, D. (OOs.). The
glish ." in B.B. Kachru (00.) op.cit.
English Language. BOOrick Books, New York.
J. 1986 Language et pédagogie en
- Obanya, P. 1971 -"The New Lool-. in Modern lan-
France et en Afrique. Edition Antthropos, Paris.
guage Teaching
Chaudenson, C. 1989 Langue, Economies et Dé-
in French- Speaking West Africa". In West African
Journal of Education. 15,2.
Institut d'Etudes Creoles et Francophones - Urii-
Packer, G. 1988. The Village of Waiting. Vintage
versité de Provence.
Books, New York.
Christophersen, P. 1960 - "Towards a Standard of
Perren, G.E. 1969- "Education Through a Second
International English. In ELT, 14,3.
Debyasuvarn, MLD. 1981 "Wili EIIL SucceOO
An African Dilemma." ln R. Jolly (00.) 1969 - English
where ESL and
in African Education: Research and Action. East Afri-
EFL Fail?" in L.E. Smith (00.) English For Cross-
can Publishing Bouse. Nairobi.
Cultural Communication. St. Martin's Press,
New York
Platt, J. Weber, H. & KO, M.L. 1984 The New

Gorlach, M. 1991 - Englishes. John Renjamin's Pub!.
Englishes. Routledge and Kegan Paul; London,
Comp. Amsterdam, Philadelphia
Halliday M.A.K. Mc. Intosh, A.,
Strevens, P.,
Prator, C.H. 1968 - "The British Heresy in TESL".
ln J.A.Fishman et al. (eds.) Language Problems of
The Linguistic Sciences and Language Teaching.
Developing Nations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; New'
Indiana University Press. Bloomington
Jibril, M. 1982 "Nigerian English: an Introduction"
- Pride, J.B. (00.) 1979 Sociolinguistic Aspects of Lan-
in J.B. Pride (00.) New Englishes. Newdury House
guage Learning and Teaching. O.U.P., Oxford.
Publishers. Rowley, Mass.
Jolly, R. (00.) 1969. English in African Education:
(00.). 1982, New Englishes .
Newbury House Publishers.
and Action. East African Publishing House. Nairobi
Rowley, Mass. Rowley; Lon-
Kachru, B.B. 1976. "Models of English for the Third
Quirk, R. 1988 - "The Question of Standards in,
White Man's Linguistic Burden or Language Prag-
the International Use of English". In P.H.
matics?" in TESOL Quarterly, 10, 2.
Lowenberg (00.) 1988 Language Spread and Lan-
(00.) 1982, The Other Tongue - En-
guage Policy:Issues. Implications and Case Stud-
glish Across Cultures. University of
ies. Georgetown University Press; Washington
1 Rev. CAMES - Série B, Vol 004, 2002

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Sciences sociales et humaines
1.e. 147') "Social Factors,
Interlanguage and Language Learning:' ln J.B.
Benjamin Kokou ALONOIJ

Pride (ed,) op. cil.
Uépartement d'histoire et d'archéologie
Smith. L.E. (cd.) 1981. English For Cross- Cul-
lJ niversité de Lomé
tural communication. St. Martin's l'l'css: New
(cd.) 1983 Readings in En-
glish as an International Lan-
« Si la population ne croit pas, tout le programme qui a été
guage. Perga mon Press. Ox-
élahoré ne peut sc réaliser 'lll \\1\\ cc l:"e eÀtrême lenteur «.
ford: New York.
Ainsi s'cÀprimait en 1423,\\/hclt Sarraut. ministre des
1983. "Some Distinctive Fea-
c('lonies, recllllnaissant la néccssité ahsolue pour la France
turcs of EFL VS
dc pratiquer cn Afrique une politiuue \\olontariste de santé
English Language hluca-
afin d'LccroÎtre la population africaine. Cctte \\olonté sc
tion:'ln Smith. L.E. (cd.) op.
traduira dans l'assistance médicale Ljue la France mit en

place dans ses colonies pour leur mise en valeur. En eftèt.
1483 "'ih a'i an lnterna-
le d':\\ eloppement économique passant nécc'sairement par
tional /\\uÀiliary language:' in
"augmentation de I<l population. gage d'une main-d'œu\\Te

L.E. Smith (cd.) op. cit.
ahondante, la France sc devait d'instituer une plliitique de
"pencer. .I. 1971 - The English Language in West
sant': atin de lutter « contre les principales causes de dé-
Africa.Longman, London.
peuplemenl ct de déchèll1ce des races indigènes « (Hauchc
1991 : 238).
Education :What Kind
Quelles sont les principales phases de cctte assistancc
ofEnglish '? in R. .Iolly (cd.) 1969. Engli.,hin Af-
médicale'? Sur quels types d'endènies reconnues gra\\es
rican Education: Research and Action. East Af-
s'est-clic portée'? Qucls sont les résultats ohtenus '1
rican Puhl. HOllse. Nairohi.
l'elles sont les questions auxquelles nous essayerons de
- - - - - - 1981 Teaching Language as an ln-
répondre à travers notre tcxte qui sc hasera sur la prophy-
ternati<lna 1 Language. I-rom
laÀie dc la maladie du sommeil comme exemple.
rraetice to Princip le. Perga mon
Press, (lxll)rd, New York. (csp.
1- l,cs origines de l'assistance médicale
Chap. 7 "When Is a Localized
L'assistance médicale a été créée en Afrique d'ahord pour
Form of Engli,h a Suitahle
s'occuper de la santé des troupes militaires ct ensuite pour
Model for Tcaching Purposes'!"
prés':rver celle des autochtones ct des civiles européens.
Todd. L
1482. "the Eng/ish Language in West
En effet, au déhut de la pénétration européenne. dès qu'un
Africa" in R.W.
poste militairc est installé, le médecin militaire de la garni-
Bailey & Gorlach - English As a World Language.
S(ln \\eillait sur la santé des Européens et des Africains.
The lJniversity of Michigan Pres,: Ann Arhor.
L'hôpital européen fut en tàit l'une des pièces maîtresse
'[ ottie, (;. 1477" Variation, Acccptability and the
des troupes coloniales. Il avait dès le déhut pour mission
principale la protection de la sanlé des memhres du corps
Foreign Lcarner: Tlmards a '\\ociolinguistics \\Vith-
eÀpéditionnaire pour qu'ils puissent mener à hien leur tra-
out il Sl)cial Contex"- in S. (ireenhaum (cd.) Ac~
vail. L'objectif principal dc 1 hôpital fut de pn1moll\\oir la
fCJili!.hiJi1yiD.L<!!lguage. Mouton Puhli,her,.[ hc
r':ussite de la conquête col(lniale en présen<lnt la sant':
llaguc: Pnis.
des troupes qui sillonnèrent l'Ali'ique. MaiS progrcS'>i\\ e-
Trcgidgo. P. 1487. "Speakers of Wc,t ;\\ frican
ment, l'hôpitalmilitairc étendra sa mission pour s'occuper
de plus en plus des Africains ct des civiles européens
ln M. Swan & B.Smith (cd.) Learner LnglisQ.
(J'aiglahou 1486 : 345).
Camhridge University Prcss, Camhridge: New
En effet, l'assistance médicale eut pour rôle de comhattre
Wong, F. 1982 -- "Native-Spcakcr English for the
d'unc part la mortalité infantile en diffusant les connais-
Third World Today T in .1.13. Pride (cd.), 1982 op.
sances élémentaires indispensahles touchant les conditions
d'accouchement et les soins à donner aux nou\\eau-nés, ct
Rev. CAMES - St'rie B, Vol 004, 2002